Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription or Fee Access

The delegitimisation of smoking in Denmark and the US

Rasmus Tyge Haarløv, Theresa Scavenius

Abstract


Tobacco smoke continues to be one of the largest causes of premature deaths on a global level. Denmark and the United States of America (US), however, represent two examples of successful transition, where the number of daily smokers has decreased significantly throughout the past 70 years. In this paper, we point out key institutional and moral entrepreneurs that paved the way for transition of the Danish and US smoking regimes. The paper investigates proponents as well as opponents of (progressive) anti-smoking legislation. We apply the theory of institutional and moral entrepreneurs to select important events and actors. In the two countries that we study in detail, Denmark and the US, we find different drivers of change: the court system in the US and institutional and moral entrepreneurs in Danish civil society. In both countries, however, the Parliament in Denmark and the Congress in the US played significant roles in maintaining and supporting the smoking regimes.


Keywords


Transition, Destabilisation, Institutional entrepreneur, Smoking

Full Text:

PDF

References


Bibliography

Antadze, N. & McGowan, K. (2017). Moral entrepreneurship: Thinking and acting at the landscape level to foster sustainability transitions. Environmental Innovation and Societal Transitions, 25 (2017), 1–13.

Akrich, M., Callon, M., & Latour, B. (2002). The key to success in innovation Part 1: The art of interessement. International Journal of Innovation Management, 6(2) (June 2002), 187–206.

Albæk, E. et al. (2007). Making tobacco consumption a political issue in the United States and Denmark: The dynamics of issue expansion in comparative perspective. Journal of Comparative Policy Analysis: Research and Practice, 9(1), 1–20.

Callon, M. (1986). Some elements of a sociology of translation: Domestication of the scallops and the fishermen of St. Brieuc Bay. The Sociological Review, 32, 196–233.

Doll, R. (2010). Evolution of knowledge of the smoking epidemic. In P. Boyle, N. Gray et al. (Eds.), Tobacco: Science, policy, and public health (pp. 1-13). Second edition. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

Elzen, B., Geels, F.W., Leeuwis, C., & van Mierlo, B., (2011). Normative contestation in transitions ‘in the making’: Animal welfare concerns and system innovation in pig husbandry. Research. Policy, 40 (2), 263–275.

Geels, F.W. (2002). Technological transitions as evolutionary reconfiguration processes: A multi-level perspective and a case-study. Research Policy, 31(8-9), 1257–1274.

Geels, F.W. (2004). From sectorial systems of innovation to socio-technical systems: Insights about dynamics and change from sociology and institutional theory. Research Policy, 33 (6), 897–920.

Geels, F. W. (2005) The dynamics of transitions in socio-technical systems: A multi-level analysis of the transition pathway from horse-drawn carriages to automobiles (1860–1930). Technology Analysis & Strategic Management, 17(4), 445–476.

Geels, F. 2012 A socio-technical analysis of low-carbon transitions: introducing the multi-level perspective into transport studies. Journal of Transport Geography 24, 471–482.

Geels, F.W. & Verhees, B. (2011). Cultural legitimacy and framing struggles in innovation journeys: A cultural-performative perspective and a case study of Dutch nuclear energy (1945–1986). Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 78(6), 910–930.

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (2014). Climate Change 2014: Mitigation of climate change: Working Group III contribution to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA

Minhas, R., & Bettcher, D. (2010). WHO – Coordinating international tobacco control. In P. Boyle, N. Gray et al. (Eds.), Tobacco: Science, Policy, and Public Health (pp. 705-715). Cambridge UK: Oxford University Press.

Mulgan, G. (2006). The process of social innovation innovations: Technology, governance. Globalization1(2), 145–162.

Mumford, M.D., & Moertl, P. (2003). Cases of social innovation: Lessons from two innovations in the 20th century. Creativity Research Journal., 15 (2–3), 261–266.

Mumford, M.D. (2002). Social innovation: Ten cases from Benjamin Franklin. Creativity Research Journal., 14 (2), 253–266.

Raven, R. (2007). Co-evolution of waste and electricity regimes: Multi-regime dynamics in the Netherlands (1969–2003). Energy Policy, 35 (4), 2197–2208.

Rip, A., Kemp, R. P. M., & Kemp, R. (1998). Technological change. In S. Rayner & E. L. Malone (Eds.), Human choice and climate change. Vol. II, Resources and technology, (pp. 327–399). Columbus, OH: Battelle Press.

Sengers, F., et al. (2016). Experimenting for sustainability transitions: A systematic literature review. Technological Forecasting and Social Change. forthcoming

Söderholm, K. (2013). Governing socio-technical transitions: Historical lessons from the implementation of centralized water and sewer systems in Northern Sweden, 1900–1950. Environmental Innovation and Societal Transition 7, 37–52.

Tainter, J.A. (2011). Energy, complexity, and sustainability: A historical perspective. Environmental Innovation and Societal Transition 1(1), 89–95.

Turnheim, B., & Geels, F.W. (2012). Regime destabilisation as the flipside of energy transitions: Lessons from the history of the British coal industry (1913–1997). Energy Policy, 50, 35–49.

Westley, F., Olsson, P., Folke, C., Homer-Dixon, T., Vredenburg, H., Loorbach, D., & van der Leeuw, S. (2011). Tipping toward sustainability: Emerging pathways of transformation. Ambio 40 (7), 762–780.

Online References

Cropley, E. (2007). Smoking could kill 1 billion this century: WHO.

https://www.reuters.com/article/us-smoking/smoking-could-kill-1-billion-this-century-who-idUSBKK25206020070702?feedType=RSS&rpc=22&sp=true. 6 August 2018

Chestney, N. (2018). Global carbon emissions hit record high in 2017.

https://www.reuters.com/article/us-energy-carbon-iea/global-carbon-emissions-hit-record-high-in-2017-idUSKBN1GY0RB. 2 July 2018.

Centers for Disease and Control Prevention. (2018). Current Cigarette Smoking Among Adults in the United States.

https://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/data_statistics/fact_sheets/adult_data/cig_smoking/index.htm. 6 August 2018.

Danish Cancer Society. (2017). More young people smoke. https://www.cancer.dk/nyheder/flere-unge-ryger/. August 6 2018.

Danish Cancer Society. (2017). The smoking history of Denmark. https://www.cancer.dk/skole/viden-om-kraeft/kan-man-undgaa-kraeft/undgaa-rygning/regler-om-rygning/. 6 August 2018

Hyldal, C. (2018). The number of smokers has stabilised for the sixth year.

https://www.dr.dk/nyheder/indland/antallet-af-rygere-staar-bomstille-paa-sjette-aar. 6 August 2018

Mandag, Morgen. 2011. Cancer doctor rebels against smoking culture. https://www.mm.dk/artikel/kr%C3%A6ftl%C3%A6ge-i-opg%C3%B8r-med-rygekultur. 6 August 2018

Rasmussen, L. (2016). Here are 9 factors killing thousands every year. https://politiken.dk/forbrugogliv/sundhedogmotion/art5635440/Her-er-9-faktorer-som-dr%C3%A6ber-tusinder-hvert-%C3%A5r. 6 August 2018

Saad, L. (2012). One in Five U.S. Adults Smoke, Tied for All-Time Low.: http://news.gallup.com/poll/156833/one-five-adults-smoke-tied-time-low.aspx. 6 August, 2018

Scandinavian Tobacco Group. (2017). Annual report 2016: Improved ebitda and strong cash flows on the base of flat net sales. https://www.st-group.com/en/media/news-stories/2017/annual-report-2016. 6 August 2018

Danish Health Authority. (2016). Cancer Plan IV. Improved effort on the cancer Plan IV – the patients cancer plan. https://www.sst.dk/da/sygdom-og-behandling/kraeft/nationale-planer/kraeftplan-iv. 6 August 2018

Danish Health Authority. Fact Sheet. (2015). The Danes smoking habits. https://www.sst.dk/da/udgivelser/2016/~/media/8CEB6CBBE22B4488817EE6259A681F67.ashx. 6 August 2018

The Tobacco Atlas. (2018). Issue consumption. 6 August 2018

WHO. (2018). Tobacco fact sheet. http://ww.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs339/en/.

August 2018

Trudsø, M. (2015). Rygeloven fylder 20 år – sådan kæmpede politikerne imod den. http://livsstil.tv2.dk/sundhed/2015-07-01-rygeloven-fylder-20-aar-saadan-kaempede-politikerne-imod-den 6 August 2018

WHO. (2017). Globally tobacco kills more than 7 million people each year. http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs339/en/ 6 August 2018

WHO. (2008). The global tobacco crisis. Tobacco – global agent of death. http://www.who.int/tobacco/mpower/mpower_report_tobacco_crisis_2008.pdf. 6 August 2018

WHO. (2002). The tobacco industry documents. What they are, what they tell us, and how to search them. A practical manual.

http://www.who.int/tobacco/communications/TI_manual_content.pdf. 6 August 2018

US Food & Drug Administration. (2018). Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act – An overview. https://www.fda.gov/tobaccoproducts/guidancecomplianceregulatoryinformation/ucm246129.htm. 6 August 2018.

Watts, J. (2017). Global atmospheric CO2 levels hit record high. https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2017/oct/30/global-atmospheric-co2-levels-hit-record-high. 6 August 2018.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.14665/1614-4007-26-1-002

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




"Transition Studies Review" ISSN online 1614-4015 / ISSN print 1614-4007

All publishing rigths reserved to © Transition Academia Press. Executive editor: Prof. Dr. Giorgio Dominese